Parasites

PARASITES

Please scroll down for pictures with information on various types of parasites and video links to view them up close and SQUIRMING!

DESCRIPTION
A parasite is an organism that lives off another organism. Parasites living inside the human body will feed off our cells, the food we eat, the supplements we take, and our energy.

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
Although many external factors contribute to parasite infestation, the biggest factor is internal: an unhealthy colon, largely the result of poor dietary and lifestyle habits and a bacterial imbalance in the digestive tract. Once the ideal ratio of 80%beneficial or neutral bacteria to 20% harmful bacteria is disrupted, the resulting imbalance creates an environment conducive to parasite infestation.

Nutritional deficiency appears to contribute to parasites. Daily diet affects the body’s internal environment, which plays a key role in determining whether parasites will pass through or infest the body. Parasites can enter the body by ingestion, inhalation, or through the skin (including through the bottom of the feet). They can also be transmitted via insects. Common sources of parasites include contaminated soil, fruits, vegetables and water; raw or rare meat; pets; mosquitoes; contact with feces (such as in daycare centers); and contact with someone who has parasites. Another factor that contributes to the growing parasite epidemic is the widespread use of drugs that suppress the immune system. Many of the drugs in common use today are immunosuppressive and therefore increase our susceptibility to parasitic infestation.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
Parasites can affect tissue anywhere in the body. Disorders that have been associated with parasites include arthritis, multiple sclerosis, appendicitis, weight gain and weight loss, cancer and epilepsy. Parasites can mimic other disorders, but they may also produce no noticeable symptoms at all. Some common symptoms of parasites include:

❑ Allergies
❑ Anemia
❑ Bed-wetting
❑ Brain fog
❑ Diarrhea or constipation
❑ Digestive complaints (gas, bloating, cramps)
❑ Disturbed sleep
❑ Granulomas (tumor-like masses that encase destroyed larva or parasites)
❑ Irritability/nervousness
❑ Irritable Bowel Syndrome

❑ Joint pain
❑ Muscle cramps
❑ Overall fatigue
❑ Pain in the umbilicus (navel)
❑ Persistent skin problems
❑ Post-nasal drip
❑ Prostatitis (prostate gland inflammation)
❑ Ravenous appetite (or loss of appetite)
❑ Rectal itching
❑ Sugar craving
❑ Teeth grinding

Because parasites can get into the bloodstream and travel to any organ, they can cause problems that are often not recognized as parasite-related. This can result in an incorrect or incomplete diagnosis.

STEPS TO ADDRESS PARASITES

1.

HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS. Use an effective, natural formula to help to combat parasites.

2.

CHANGE YOUR DIET. Avoid eating or drinking foods that may be contaminated, such as unwashed fruits or vegetables,,sushi or sashimi, unfiltered water, and raw or undercooked meats.

3.

AVOID WALKING BAREFOOT. Always wear shoes, especially in grassy areas used by animals.

4.

PET PROTOCOL. Avoid letting your pets sleep with you or lick your face. Wear gloves when cleaning pet areas, especially cat litter boxes.

5.

DRESS APPROPRIATELY. Wear protective clothing when you are outdoors to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.

6.

ADOPT HEALTHY HABITS. Exclude foods and substances known to contribute to bacterial imbalance, including refined and processed foods, sugar of any kind, alcohol, refined carbohydrates, antibiotics, and steroids.

7.

ADD FIBER. Slowly begin to increase your fiber intake with a balance of soluble and insoluble fiber, such as the natural balance found in flax.

Along with the above suggestions, it is also recommended to incorporate Colon Hydrotherapy as your combating parasites. Protocols can be discussed with the Colon Hydrotherapist on an individual basis.

SOURCE: Advanced Naturals

VIDEO LINKS

In the Cecum http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rX9T221-frA&feature=related
Large Intestinal Worm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eILfXkgCTLA&feature=related
In the eye http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zw0oV7m3rjk&feature=related
In your face http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiHtUFuGgSA&feature=related

 

Hookworm Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale)
The human hookworms include two nematode (roundworm) species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. (Adult females: 10 to 13 mm (A. duodenale), 9 to 11 mm (N. americanus); adult males: 8 to 11 mm (A. duodenale), 7 to 9 mm (N. americanus). A smaller group of hookworms infecting animals can invade and parasitize humans (A. ceylanicum) or can penetrate the human skin (causing cutaneous larva migrans), but do not develop any further (A. braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala).


Hokwarm Life Cycle

Eggs are passed in the stool  , and under favorable conditions (moisture, warmth, shade), larvae hatch in 1 to 2 days. The released rhabditiform larvae grow in the feces and/or the soil  , and after 5 to 10 days (and two molts) they become become filariform (third-stage) larvae that are infective  . These infective larvae can survive 3 to 4 weeks in favorable environmental conditions. On contact with the human host, the larvae penetrate the skin and are carried through the veins to the heart and then to the lungs. They penetrate into the pulmonary alveoli, ascend the bronchial tree to the pharynx, and are swallowed  . The larvae reach the small intestine, where they reside and mature into adults. Adult worms live in the lumen of the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall with resultant blood loss by the host  . Most adult worms are eliminated in 1 to 2 years, but longevity records can reach several years.

Some A. duodenale larvae, following penetration of the host skin, can become dormant (in the intestine or muscle). In addition, infection by A. duodenale may probably also occur by the oral and transmammary route. N. americanus, however, requires a transpulmonary migration phase.
Geographic Distribution: The second most common human helminthic infection (after ascariasis). Worldwide distribution, mostly in areas with moist, warm climate. Both N. americanus and A. duodenale are found in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Necator americanus predominates in the Americas and Australia, while only A. duodenale is found in the Middle East, North Africa and southern Europe.

Roundworm Roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides)
Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest nematode (roundworm) parasitizing the human intestine. Immature or adult A.lumbricoides are sometimes passed in stools. Adult males measure 15-30 cm in length by 0.3-0.8 cm in diameter and have a ventrally curved tail; adult females measure 20-35 cm in length by 0.5 cm in diameter.


Roundworm Life Cycle

Adult worms  live in the lumen of the small intestine. A female may produce approximately 200,000 eggs per day, which are passed with the feces  . Unfertilized eggs may be ingested but are not infective. Fertile eggs embryonate and become infective after 18 days to several weeks  , depending on the environmental conditions (optimum: moist, warm, shaded soil). After infective eggs are swallowed  , the larvae hatch  , invade the intestinal mucosa, and are carried via the portal, then systemic circulation to the lungs  . The larvae mature further in the lungs (10 to 14 days), penetrate the alveolar walls, ascend the bronchial tree to the throat, and are swallowed  . Upon reaching the small intestine, they develop into adult worms  . Between 2 and 3 months are required from ingestion of the infective eggs to oviposition by the adult female. Adult worms can live 1 to 2 years.
Geographic Distribution: The most common human helminthic infection. Worldwide distribution. Highest prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions, and areas with inadequate sanitation. Occurs in rural areas of the southeastern United States.

Pinworm Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis)
The nematode Enterobius vermicularis (previously Oxyuris vermicularis) also called human pinworm. (Adult females: 8 to 13 mm, adult male: 2 to 5 mm.) Humans are considered to be the only hosts of E. vermicularis. A second species, Enterobius gregorii, has been described and reported from Europe, Africa, and Asia. For all practical purposes, the morphology, life cycle, clinical presentation, and treatment of E. gregorii is identical to E. vermicularis.


Pinworm Life Cycle

Eggs are deposited on perianal folds  . Self-infection occurs by transferring infective eggs to the mouth with hands that have scratched the perianal area  . Person-to-person transmission can also occur through handling of contaminated clothes or bed linens. Enterobiasis may also be acquired through surfaces in the environment that are contaminated with pinworm eggs (e.g., curtains, carpeting). Some small number of eggs may become airborne and inhaled. These would be swallowed and follow the same development as ingested eggs. Following ingestion of infective eggs, the larvae hatch in the small intestine  and the adults establish themselves in the colon  . The time interval from ingestion of infective eggs to oviposition by the adult females is about one month. The life span of the adults is about two months. Gravid females migrate nocturnally outside the anus and oviposit while crawling on the skin of the perianal area  . The larvae contained inside the eggs develop (the eggs become infective) in 4 to 6 hours under optimal conditions  . Retroinfection, or the migration of newly hatched larvae from the anal skin back into the rectum, may occur but the frequency with which this happens is unknown.
Geographic Distribution: Worldwide, with infections more frequent in school- or preschool- children and in crowded conditions. Enterobiasis appears to be more common in temperate than tropical countries. The most common helminthic infection in the United States (an estimated 40 million persons infected).

Schistosoma Schistosoma
Schistosomiasis is caused by digenetic blood trematodes. The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni. Two other species, more localized geographically, are S. mekongi and S. intercalatum. In addition, other species of schistosomes, which parasitize birds and mammals, can cause cercarial dermatitis in humans.


Schistosoma Life Cycle

Eggs are eliminated with feces or urine  . Under optimal conditions the eggs hatch and release miracidia  , which swim and penetrate specific snail intermediate hosts  . The stages in the snail include 2 generations of sporocysts  and the production of cercariae  . Upon release from the snail, the infective cercariae swim, penetrate the skin of the human host  , and shed their forked tail, becoming schistosomulae  . The schistosomulae migrate through several tissues and stages to their residence in the veins ( ,  ). Adult worms in humans reside in the mesenteric venules in various locations, which at times seem to be specific for each species  . For instance, S. japonicum is more frequently found in the superior mesenteric veins draining the small intestine  , and S. mansoni occurs more often in the superior mesenteric veins draining the large intestine  . However, both species can occupy either location, and they are capable of moving between sites, so it is not possible to state unequivocally that one species only occurs in one location. S. haematobium most often occurs in the venous plexus of bladder  , but it can also be found in the rectal venules. The females (size 7 to 20 mm; males slightly smaller) deposit eggs in the small venules of the portal and perivesical systems. The eggs are moved progressively toward the lumen of the intestine (S. mansoni and S. japonicum) and of the bladder and ureters (S. haematobium), and are eliminated with feces or urine, respectively  . Pathology of S. mansoni and S. japonicum schistosomiasis includes: Katayama fever, hepatic perisinusoidal egg granulomas, Symmers’ pipe stem periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, and occasional embolic egg granulomas in brain or spinal cord. Pathology of S. haematobium schistosomiasis includes: hematuria, scarring, calcification, squamous cell carcinoma, and occasional embolic egg granulomas in brain or spinal cord.
Human contact with water is thus necessary for infection by schistosomes. Various animals, such as dogs, cats, rodents, pigs, hourse and goats, serve as reservoirs for S. japonicum, and dogs for S. mekongi.
Geographic Distribution: Schistosoma mansoni is found in parts of South America and the Caribbean, Africa, and the Middle East; S. haematobium in Africa and the Middle East; and S. japonicum in the Far East. Schistosoma mekongi and S. intercalatum are found focally in Southeast Asia and central West Africa, respectively.

Tapeworm Tapeworm
The cestodes (tapeworms) Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). T.saginata may measure 9 m (27 ft), whereas T.solium may reach 6 m (18 ft). Taeniasis occurs when raw or undercooked unfrozen beef (T.saginata) or pork (T.solium) are eaten. T. solium can also cause cysticercosis.

Life cycle of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium:
Tapeworm Life Cycle

Humans are the only definitive hosts for Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs or gravid proglottids are passed with feces  ; the eggs can survive for days to months in the environment. Cattle (T. saginata) and pigs (T. solium) become infected by ingesting vegetation contaminated with eggs or gravid proglottids  . In the animal’s intestine, the oncospheres hatch  , invade the intestinal wall, and migrate to the striated muscles, where they develop into cysticerci. A cysticercus can survive for several years in the animal. Humans become infected by ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat  . In the human intestine, the cysticercus develops over 2 months into an adult tapeworm, which can survive for years. The adult tapeworms attach to the small intestine by their scolex  and reside in the small intestine  . Length of adult worms is usually 5 m or less for T. saginata (however it may reach up to 25 m) and 2 to 7 m for T. solium. The adults produce proglottids which mature, become gravid, detach from the tapeworm, and migrate to the anus or are passed in the stool (approximately 6 per day). T. saginata adults usually have 1,000 to 2,000 proglottids, while T. solium adults have an average of 1,000 proglottids. The eggs contained in the gravid proglottids are released after the proglottids are passed with the feces. T. saginata may produce up to 100,000 and T. solium may produce 50,000 eggs per proglottid respectively.
Geographic Distribution: Both species are worldwide in distribution. Taenia solium is more prevalent in poorer communities where humans live in close contact with pigs and eat undercooked pork, and in very rare in Muslim countries.

Whipworm Whipworm (Trichuris trichiura)
The nematode Trichuris trichiura, also called the human whipworm. The adult female measures about 35-50 mm in length, and the male about 30-45 mm.

Life Cycle:
Whipworm Life Cycle

The unembryonated eggs are passed with the stool  . In the soil, the eggs develop into a 2-cell stage  , an advanced cleavage stage  , and then they embryonate  ; eggs become infective in 15 to 30 days. After ingestion (soil-contaminated hands or food), the eggs hatch in the small intestine, and release larvae  that mature and establish themselves as adults in the colon  . The adult worms (approximately 4 cm in length) live in the cecum and ascending colon. The adult worms are fixed in that location, with the anterior portions threaded into the mucosa. The females begin to oviposit 60 to 70 days after infection. Female worms in the cecum shed between 3,000 and 20,000 eggs per day. The life span of the adults is about 1 year.
Geographic Distribution: The third most common roundworm of humans. Worldwide, with infections more frequent in areas with tropical weather and poor sanitation practices, and among children. It is estimated that 800 million people are infected worldwide. Trichuriasis occurs in the southern United States.
Source: CDC – DPDx: Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern